RAY'S MATHEMATICAL SERIES. 917? 2 v REGULAR SERIES. Ray's New Primary Arithmetic. TWO-BOOK SERIES IN ARITHMETIC. Ray's New Elementary Arithmetic. KEYS ON APPLICATION TO THE PUBLISHERS. GIFT OF JUNE 28, 1915 COPYRIGHT, 1879, Printed at PREFACE. In the preparation of this book, the publishers have kept constantly in view the necessities of the schools and the demand for economical school books. The ELEMENTARY is intended to serve as a sufficient introduction to Ray's New PRACTICAL ARITHMETIC, and with that book forms a two-book series. Teachers who have used Ray’s Rudiments of Arithmetic will perceive that large portions of that book have been incorporated in this work. The mental exercises, which were a feature of the Rudiments, have been much enlarged and extended. Such other changes have been made as seemed necessary to adapt the book more closely to the present methods of instruction. It will be found best to drill constantly on such combinations of numbers as are given in the first lessons, until the class has thoroughly mastered them. This drill should be kept up with the use of objects until each member of the class can answer without a moment's hesitation. To avoid the confusion that often arises in tho minds of pupils from the presentation of a variety of methods, explanations, solutions, rules, remarks, etc., it has been the constant aim, in the preparation of this book, to present each subject in one form only—and that the most concise and simple, if consistent with clearness. In the treatment of each subject, a model solution is given, and a full and lucid explanation is furnished. These are intended to be studied carefully by the pupil. Succeeding examples are to be solved similarly, and the pupil should be examined with reference to the reasons for his work. Care should be taken that drill work does not become machine work. It is not expected that these solutions and explanations will in all cases preclude the necessity of additional explanation on the part of the teacher. No book can present a subject so fully as to make it clear to every mind, and it should be the constant endeavor of the teacher to ascertain just what part the pupil fails to understand, and to aid him by suggestion rather than by an attempt at exhaustive explanation. This book is not intended to be a complete arithmetic. With proper drill, it is hoped that pupils may gain from it a thorough knowledge of the fundamental rules, with some knowledge of fractions and the common tables. CINCINNATI, May., 1879. |